MASTER OF MODERN LANGUAGE STUDIES
SEMANTIC ANALYSIS AND MORPHOLOGY Lexical Al-muladi IN DICTIONARY ARABIC
Mashitah Binti Abdullah Graduate School of Modern Languages, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur [email protected]
study will be conducted quantitative research to analyze the lexical item dictionary Arabic alMuwallad in terms of semantics and its relationship from the morphological aspect. The dictionary chosen is Al-Mu ‟jam Al-Arabiyy Al-Asasi which is one of the modern Arabic language dictionaries produced by the Committee on Education, Culture and Science
Arab. The lexical al-Muwallad refers to a lexical given new meaning or in other words that undergoes a change of meaning in line with the passage of time. The main data will be collected from the Al-Mu ‟jam Al-Arabiyy Al-Asasi dictionary manually and samples are randomly selected from the data set. Samples were analyzed using text analysis methods by classifying based on the parts of meaning change. After identifying the part, the data will be viewed from the point of view of the relationship between semantics (meaning) and morphology (pattern) to explain the relationship between the two aspects that have been determined. In general, this study seeks to unravel the relevance of changes in meaning as well as the types of patterns that exist for each lexical al-Muwallad.
INTRODUCTION Arabic is one of the major languages in the world and the official language of Islam. The main sources of Islam are recorded in Arabic. This language is widely used everywhere as a language of knowledge, language of diplomacy, language of economics, language of tourism and others (Mohd Zaki, 2010).
There are not among the researchers who decided the date of commencement of the Arabic language, but most of them say that this language began about two centuries before the migration (Ibrahim Anis, 1973 quoted from Mohd Zaki, 2010).
However, based on the effects found on the Arabic language, it is complete in meeting the needs of all aspects of the life of the Arab community in the pre-Islamic era. In fact, it grew rapidly after the revelation of al-Quran al-Karim and spread widely following the spread of Islam to all corners of the world.
Al-Quran al-Karim and the teachings of Islam have had a profound effect on the lives of Arabs in particular and Muslims in general. Following this effect, the Qur’an became the main driver of the development of Arabic semantic studies.
The semantic study of the Qur’an was triggered when there were a number of Arabs who did not believe in the truth of the Qur’an on the height of its language which also used the Arabic language. Arabic linguists and Arabic writers are also challenged to compete with the language of the Qur’an and its greatness despite the fact that no one can match the greatness and glory of the Qur’an. Based on
these 2 phenomena , the results of an in-depth study of the literal and implicit meaning of each word found in the Qur’an. The researchers then continued their research on al-Hadith al-Nabawi from the aspect of the study of the meaning of the Arabic language and finally included the various uses of Arabic that are not limited to the Quran and al-Hadith al-Nabawi (Muhammad Marwan and Wan Moharani, 2009: 2829) .
Background of the Study Nur Hashimah views through her passage: Semantic research becomes more interesting with the application done on lexicography. Regardless of whether using the theory of relevance or cognitive semantics, both of these researches are able to breathe new life and are contemporary in nature to overcome the problem of dictionary compilation.
(Nur Hashimah, 2007: 54) He added, among the researchers who explore semantics and applications in dictionaries are Salmah Jabar (1999), Nor Hashimah (2001), Hawiyah Baba (2003), Lee Yang Suk (2005), Rusmadi Baharuddin (2005), Salina Jaafar (2005), Imran Ho Abdullah and Norsimah Mat Awal (2005), Junaidi Kasdan (2007), Hasnah Mohamad (2007). Among the aspects studied by them are the problem of ambiguity of meaning, redefining the meaning of the entry, dealing with the problem of polysemy, expansion of meaning and selection as well as constraint of meaning in terminology (Nur Hashimah, 2007: 54-55). Al-Mu’jam al-‘Araby al-Asasi ()
Dictionary is one of the dictionaries
which is run by Arabic language centers even though it is not published by the Arabic language center itself. This is because of the efforts made by the Arab Education, Culture and Scholarship Committee under the Arab League 3
get full cooperation from Arabic language centers and universities of Arab countries. In addition, the scientists who are directly or indirectly involved in presenting this dictionary are experts or experts refer to the Arabic language center, especially the Egyptian Arabic Language Center, Cairo. There are 25000 basic entries compiled in Al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi using the alfba ‟iyy method which is alphabetical. Each basic word is broken down into word building forms and their types. The description of the word is made in detail with examples taken from the verses of the Qur’an, al-Hadith, words of wisdom, examples of its use and also the latest language. Modern terms from various fields are also included after being modified according to the structure of Arabic words and recognized by the Arabic language centers. This dictionary is intended specifically for general readers and lovers of Arabic who want to know Arabic more deeply. Various efforts have been actively implemented since October 1982 to complete a modern dictionary of Arabic that can be used by all, especially students with backgrounds from various fields of study. Finally, in 1989 this dictionary was successfully printed and marketed as a result of the seriousness of Arabic language scholars (Muhammad Marwan and Wan Moharani, 2007: 114-115). Various efforts have been actively implemented since October 1982 to complete a modern dictionary of Arabic that can be used by all, especially students with backgrounds from various fields of study. Finally, in 1989 this dictionary was successfully printed and marketed as a result of the seriousness of Arabic language scholars (Muhammad Marwan and Wan Moharani, 2007: 114-115). Various efforts have been actively implemented since October 1982 to complete a modern dictionary of Arabic that can be used by all, especially students with backgrounds from various fields of study. Finally, in 1989 this dictionary was successfully printed and marketed as a result of the seriousness of Arabic language scholars (Muhammad Marwan and Wan Moharani, 2007: 114-115).
Problem Statement The structure of language in the form of words or terms is not just a series of dead sounds in morphological order, but in them contains meaning. The problem of meaning behind words or pronounced with semantics has long been
discussed by philosophers, loggers, linguists, rhetoricians, jurists, both Arabs and non-Arabs. Semantic discussion is studied in linguistics both theoretically and practically as through the language dictionary () (Tajudin Nur: 2010).
Now, the birth of various studies related to Arabic language in Malaysia, especially in the field of teaching and learning and not less than the amount in respect of borrowing an Arabic word that existed in English.
Even so, very few studies on the lexical of the Arabic language itself are not borrowed or disturbed by foreign languages according to the researcher’s observations. Therefore, the researcher concludes that this study is important to look at the phenomenon of diversity of types of meaning (from a semantic aspect) and variations of morphological patterns of Arabic words. In addition, this study will also reveal a variety of new knowledge about the lexical of the Arabic language as well as be a continuation for further study in the future.
Objectives of the Study The study of morphology and semantics is important especially in the field of lexicography. The absence of this knowledge, especially semantics will make it difficult for a person to compile or maintain a dictionary. Dictionary compilation is also considered a word recording art that needs to be handled carefully and thoroughly (Wan Mohd Saophy Amizul: 2010).
So the objectives of the study that have been identified are as follows: 5
1) Identify the types of meanings found in the lexical Al-Muwallad in 2) the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi. 3) Identify the lexical items of Al-Muwallad that undergo changes in terms of meaning in the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi. 4) Identify the relationship of changes in the lexical meaning of Al-Muwallad from the morphological aspect.
Importance of Research This writing will present the results of research from one of the disciplines of knowledge that is in the field of semantics related to lexical. Lack of knowledge of meaning will prevent you from mastering the language well. This is because there are various types of meaning changes that occur in certain lexicals such as the lexical alMuwallad as a result of the development of a language.
Therefore, this study has a clear importance which can contribute to the learning process of students, especially in understanding and appreciating clearly about the lexical al-Muwallad. This is because by clearly understanding can improve the mastery of Arabic or a second language at various levels of study. This study is also very important because it explores the phenomenon of al-Muwallad’s lexical meaning change and the relationship of these changes to the variety of patterns that affect the process of change.
In addition, it is hoped that this writing can help those who are directly or indirectly involved in the field of lexicography to understand in detail the lexical meaning of al-Muwallad based on the findings of the study. Para 6
researchers are also expected to benefit from the results of studies that have been analyzed for their study whether they are specifically involved in the field of semantics or related fields.
Operational Definition 1. Lexical Dictionary Hall
fourth edition defines lexical as it relates to the
words or vocabulary of a language. For example, „lexical meaning‟ which refers to the meaning of a word itself without looking at its use in a sentence. In Arabic, lexical is referred to as a sentence) as in the example of the translation of the sentence „2 this book contains words
which is difficult (lexical is also referred to as 3mufradat (
). In addition to the word sentence (
) i.e. those related to words or
those related to dictionaries or dictionary production.
According to the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi, the word „al-Muwallad‟ means an Arabic word used in the past but given a new meaning after the time of al-Narration. The definition of al-Muwallad dictionary is as the passage below:
Board Dictionary Fourth Edition, 2005: 912. Board Language and Literature. Dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi, 1999: 920. Laroussse. 3 Kamus al-Mawrid, 1999: 525. Dar El-Ilm Lil-Malayen. 2
Each lexical al-Muwallad in the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi is marked with the symbol () 4. For example the word “ista‟ mara ”“ a ‟mara”
from the root word
which means providing manpower or colonizing. In
general, al-Muwallad can be defined as something new5 while specifically referring to words that have a new meaning.
3. Al-History of al-word has several meanings as described in the Dictionary of the Arab-Melayu Dewan. The dictionary defines al-narration which refers to: a) story, while b) one form of news, and c) in the legal aspect of Islam is defined as the transfer of information or news about deeds (words etc.) from the Prophet Muhammad SAW (Dictionary large Arab-Melayu Dewan, 2006: 995).
The definition that has been declared by the Dictionary of Arabic-Malay viewed
with the meaning of the word al-narration described by the dictionary al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi in the context of a description that uses Arabic. However, the definition given by the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi is more specific i.e. the story is in the form of long prose (al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi, 1999: 564).
Dictionary of Al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi, 1999: 61. Laroussse. Great Dictionary of the Arab-Melayu Dewan 2006: 2691. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Nur Hashimah (2007: 43) defines semantics as the study of meaning. Language without meaning is meaningless. This means that regardless of phonology, morphology or syntax, semantics can be a closely related field in order to further explain the nature of the language studied. Even non-verbal meanings are successfully extracted using semantics.
In conclusion, it can be said that semantics is a branch of linguistic study that is directly related to the element of meaning. Semantics also sets the procedure for the study of meaning scientifically by using clear and systematic methods. Semantics not only focuses on theoretical research but also studies the elements of meaning in human language in practice and application. This practical study of meaning applies the results of theoretical semantic research in a special book known as a dictionary or teacher in Arabic (Muhammad Marwan and Wan Moharani, 2009: 34).
5. Morphology There are various definitions of morphology expressed by linguists such as Lyons, Bloomfield, Jensen, Nik safiah Karim and many others. Based on their concepts, morphology is associated with words or in other words, morphology is the field of knowledge that studies word forms. Thus, words are an important element in the study of morphology (Harison, 2011: 86). LITERATURE REVIEW Meaning Field Theory According to Lehrer (1924) quoted from Raksana Bibi (1993), an explanation of how words can gain new meaning in certain contexts can 9
seen through field theory. The example he gave is like the word joint which originally referred to the parts of the bone connection has undergone semantic extensions to refer to the group of words that are responsible for connecting the parts of the sentence in the context of linguistics. Trier mentions: Field Theory is a theory that deals with a set of related words that fall under one Imedan semantic domain, subject area). For example, “glass, a container” can be studied together with cups, bowls, mugs, vases, and other words that carry the meaning of the container to see how these items differ.
(Lehrer, 1974: 7, quoted from Aini, 2005: 85) Trier is a German linguist who pioneered the field of meaning theory developed through his work. Trier (Darwis, 1994: 3 quoted from S. Nathesan, 2003: 113-114) developed the idea of de Sausure based on the views of German culturalists, namely JG von Herder and German philosopher W. Von Humbolt then put forward his famous idea of Theory of Meaning Field . Through this approach, a meaning field divides the concept field into parts like a mosaic (Lehrer: 1974). This idea also gives the meaning that words initially have an overlapping meaning but eventually have their own specific meaning.
The Toeri Medan developed by Trier also identifies that each language is developed with reality uniquely. Trier also states that in the lexical field, the whole network of concepts or circles of thought (ideas)
connected in a limited period of time. He has also distinguished lexical and conceptual fields.
Lehrer added, (1974, quoted from Aini, 2005: 87) a word produces meaning by contradicting its pattern. For example in Malay, shoes (the tool used to lay a foot when walking). In addition, there are various types of shoes with their size, shape, use and materials. Examples are sports shoes, leather shoes, rubber shoes and the like. Shoes also consist of various brands that have different types, shapes and parts of specialization. this means that shoes are hyponyms for sports shoes, rubber shoes, leather shoes and so on (Aini, 2005: 87).
This field theory assumption held by Trier is a vocabulary as something that has structure. Thus, words that have a conceptual relationship in a language can be classified into a specific set (WT Gordon (1982) quoted from S. Nathesan, 2003: 114).
Understandably, the Meaning Field theory is a theory that involves a group or a set of interconnected words in a field. In a field, there is a shared meaning known as the central meaning. In addition to the shared meaning, there are also several components that distinguish one word from another word known as distinctive features (Aini, 2005: 89).
Based on the researcher’s observation, the Meaning Field Theory triggered by Trier can be utilized in this study as it can be applied in various major languages that exist in this world. This study becomes more important by adapting the Field Theory of Meaning to a specific lexical that is al lexical alMuwallad.
Morphology of Arabic Dictionary has a very important relationship with semantic science. This is because the main objective of the dictionary is to determine the word and its meaning Based on the phenomenon Based on the morphological aspects, Arabic is located in the group of inflectional language (inflectional language) or also known as flexion language (flectional language). Languages in this group exhibit a combination of semantic distinctive features in a single bonded form or in a bonded form united to one another. In other words it shows internal changes for words and characteristics related to aspects of time, aspects of quantity, aspects of gender (gender), cases and others (Asmah, 1992: 54 quoted from Mohd Zaki, 2010).
Morphology is a foundation that is considered important for lexicography. This importance is clear when dictionaries touch on matters related to a lexical item such as explaining about a word when it is included in the letters of adjectives or discarded, derivated and changes that occur during the process of qalb (
) that is the conversion of letters or al- ibdal (
letter replacement. The same is true when it is discussed regarding I ‟lal (
) i.e. change
or conversions that occur in the letters alif (), wau () and ya ‟() and also mufrad, muthanna, plural, tashghir, ratio. In addition, the construction of a word whether thulathi, rubaie, khumasi and when touching on the question of reading level, masculine and feminine (Radzuan, 1999).
Review of Past Studies Throughout the literature review, there are several studies that are found to be very similar to this study, namely the study of Marzuqah entitled Al-Alfaz AlMuwalladah fi Al-Mu ‟jam Al-Wasit (2008) from the State Islamic University, Malang Indonesia. The findings of his study concluded that there are 120 lexical al-Muwalladah in Mu ‟jam Al-Wasit, namely 6 lexical on the letter
„ tsa ‟, 9 on the
„ dal ‟, 24 on the
„Syin‟, 3 on the letter
„jim‟, 12 on the letter „ra‟, 4 on the letter
ba, 11 on the letter „ha‟, 6 on the letter
„za‟, 15 on the letter
„sa‟, and 2 on the letter
„ta ‟, 1 on„ kha ‟, 8 on„ sin ‟, 14 on
„ dha ‟. In contrast to
this study, researchers use data from different dictionaries, namely al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy Al-Asasi and not only analyze from the field of semantics such as the study of Marzuqah (2008) but will also relate the analysis through morphological patterns.
In addition to the study, the researcher also looked at the study of researchers in the country such as a dissertation entitled “A Lexical Study in the Field of Meaning Theory: A Comprehensive Analysis” completed by Roksana Bibi Abdullah (1993). This survey study focuses on the problem of linguistic term variation used to refer to one concept and several concepts using the same term. Findings of the study
he can conclude that there are various forms of terms to refer to one concept and different concepts to refer to one term. Thus, there are changes in the meaning of loan terms among linguists. Their works also have the effect of inconsistencies in the use of linguistic terms specific to syntactic terms.
Among other studies that are considered almost similar to this study is like the dissertation produced by Wan Zahari (1999) entitled “Lexical and Semantic Studies in Poems JM Aziz. The objective of his study was to look at the variety of forms as well as the lexical and semantic use of JM Aziz’s works. The results of this study found that JM Aziz’s poems have various lexical forms and are packed with semantic elements in each line of his poems. Because of that, Wan Zahari’s writing findings also show the result that the ability to understand verbally is more difficult when compared to writing.
Although Wan Zahari’s field of study is similar to the field of study that the researcher wants to explore, the researcher will complete his study by selecting data from the Arabic dictionary. This means that the researcher’s data is not from the text of the poem or poem but it is with respect to lexicography. A bit different to the investigation Wan Mohd Sophy Amizul (2010) entitled “Entry Religion Labeled” Ar “in the Kamus Dewan: An Analysis of Semantic” which focuses on a loan word Arabic in Malay derived from Kamus Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Fourth Edition. In contrast to this study, 14
who wants to see from the aspect of changing morphological patterns for the lexical al-Muwallad in al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy Al-Asasi. In addition, the study entitled “Transfer of English Lexicon into Chinese” conducted by Chen (2006) is seen to be almost similar to the study of Wan Mohd Saophy Amizul but Chen studied the word borrowing English into Chinese which focuses on lexical letters. The findings of his study show that students often use lexical letters because it is simple and concise. As for education officials, they have different views on the acceptance of lexical letters as Chinese lexicons. In addition, the effects of lexical lexicon have tarnished the uniqueness of the Chinese language. Therefore,
METHODOLOGY of Study Data The data sampled in this study are from the dictionary source al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi. The data will be randomly selected from al-Muwallad’s lexical population. Only data related to meaning changes and patterns will be analyzed according to specific sections and classifications. The selection of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiyy Al-Asasi is based on its status which is one of the 15 dictionaries
modern Arabic which is an important reference nowadays. This dictionary is produced specifically for those who have a desire to deepen the Arabic language in helping to master it better. The entries contained in this dictionary are also modern entries that have received the agreement of the body responsible for handling the production of the dictionary to be included in al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiyy Al-Asasi.
Data Collection Methods Text-based data such as interview transcripts, field notes from observations, related documents (official documents and personal documents), and research notes need to be managed systematically so that they can be analyzed according to specific components such as collection, contraction, processing and conclusion (Noraini, 2010: 492).
Once the main data source of the study has been identified, then the researcher begins the process of researching the desired lexical. In this process, all the lexical al-Muwallad found in the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi will be listed with the meaning and included in one group. All the lexicals are researched and selected to see the types of meanings found in the lexical. Subsequently the data were examined for a second time to see the existence of the relation of meaning change with the change of each lexical from its root word and included in other groups. The next step is to provide a lexical list that identifies the types of meanings and has changes for each
lexical items and observed again in order to meet the criteria already stated in part one previously.
For the last step, after all the required lexicals are listed, the lexicals are appreciated for the last time along with their translation guided by al-Mu ‟jam al-Wasit6 for the accuracy of the meaning and validity of the selected lexical.
Sample Selection Methods After the entire data were collected, this process continued with the selection of samples from the al-Muwallad lexical population that had been identified. Sample selection was made randomly using systematic random sampling method.
In the procedure of this method, each unit or subject in the population has the opportunity to be selected as a sample. This means that each n-unit or subject will be selected where the n-distance is every 20 pages of the dictionary al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi. This means that the data selected as a sample are only in certain multiples (Chua, 2011: 217). This systematic sampling method was chosen because it is easier to implement as the study data in this study have a large amount. Therefore, Chua (2011: 217) has divided three steps this systematic sampling procedure can be implemented as follows: i.
List population subjects using numbers and randomly arranged without looking at specific categories.
Al-Mu ‟jam al-Wasit is also considered one of the modern Arabic dictionaries produced entirely by the Egyptian Arabic Language Center, Cairo in 1960. 6
Determine the number of samples required in the study.
Sum the value of the nth multiple. number of words in a population Multiple values n = Number of samples required
Methods of Data Analysis The lexical data of al-Muwallad obtained in full are analyzed based on the analysis of the type of template (template) as presented by Crabtree and Miller (1992) quoted from Noraini (2010: 493). According to this type of analysis, the researcher first prepares a framework or code before a detailed analysis is made of the text. This framework is open, that is, can be reviewed after matching the text. This type of analysis is built based on theory, knowledge or conclusions from the text read. The process of analyzing this type of template can be illustrated as in figure 3.1 below: TEXT
Identify units Check category Identify relevance Confirm 18
Figure 1: Template type analysis (Source: Noraini, 2010) Based on figure 1 above, the process of analyzing the text of the study data involves identifying the unit after all the al-Muwallad lexicals are listed in one group. Upon completion of the process, the selected data will be checked through the categories found in each lexical al-Muwallad in the dictionary of al-Mu ‟jam al„ Arabiy al-Asasi. This review process can be done repeatedly in order to present an accurate report. Determining the relationship between the meaning and word formation of the study data is observed after review and then make verification of the data analyzed.
In general, the data analysis of this study involves two aspects, namely semantic analysis and followed by morphological analysis based on the data collection that has been done.
CONCLUSION Based on the introduction to the methodology of the study, this writing seeks to unravel the question of the diversity of meanings (semantics) and lexical patterns (morphology) of al-Muwallad in the dictionary al-Mu ‟jam al-„ Arabiy al-Asasi. This is because dictionaries have a very close relationship with semantic science. It is hoped that this study can be realized for the future.
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